Connection technology drives the lifeblood of the world, such as mixed signal connector,let's see it together.
As technology continues to advance, any design requires the interconnection of components to become increasingly important. While all of the design engineer's design projects can rely on their favorite connectors beforehand, engineers need to find new, better-performing connectors to optimize designs and ensure optimal results for increased bandwidth and elimination of crosstalk or environmental impact. Connectors have never been more useful in successful embedded system design.
Mixed signal connector integrity and performance requirements are increasing
Prior to today's high-speed design requirements, the main potential barrier to connectors was the physical aspects of their design, such as stack height, board distance, current requirements, process and operating temperatures.
As system speeds increase, interconnect designs are no longer based solely on mechanical requirements. Now, you should also consider some additional electrical performance issues. Today's designers must consider issues such as crosstalk, skew, and propagation delay. Give a few examples.
The successful design of any connector requires an appropriate balance between maximum physical and mechanical strength while optimizing signal integrity. Connectors are an important part of the signal transmission chain and should not be overlooked when designing high-speed systems. In fact, the design and manufacture of connectors should be part of the overall system-level design process.
Increase bandwidth requirements
Increasing bandwidth requirements require connectors to handle increasingly high data transfers for all types of applications. Cutting-edge technology is now not only in military and aerospace design. From cars to consumer IoT devices, we are pursuing cutting-edge technology. Today's rapidly growing bandwidth demands challenge the ability to leverage traditional design methods of existing technology components. While connectors are generally considered to be "passive components" for many products, they need to follow the same design criteria as all other elements in any high speed/high bandwidth product.
Electrical performance issues to consider
Crosstalk is an undesirable mode of transmission of electrical signals between two or more transmission media due to inductive or capacitive coupling. Crosstalk can also result from non-uniformities in the transmission medium and tilting effects in the signal transmission pair. At high speeds, the circuit generates electrical noise, affects signal crosstalk, and can create electromagnetic interference noise that interferes with other circuits. This means that signal integrity and reliability are very important performance.
Historically, crosstalk was caused by cables, but as LAN speeds increased and cable quality improved, other channel components began to have an impact on crosstalk performance. Connector crosstalk can be a considerable problem.
Skew or propagation delay
The inner pair and the inter-pair skew respectively describe the difference in propagation delay between electrical signals within the signal line pair and between two or more signal line pairs in a cable. Both will affect the available bandwidth. Intra-frame skew can cause signal distortion, and a reduction in transmission bandwidth results in higher electromagnetic radiation and lower noise immunity. Since, as with most multi-channel data bus systems, all data must be active at the same time, the skew of the pairwise pairs results in a reduction in bandwidth. Both of these problems may be affected by differences in the mechanical length of the signal to the inner conductor or different dielectric constants, mainly in connectors of 90°.
the effect on the environment
Many of us work in a normal environment, and the surrounding equipment and appliances don't feel uncomfortable. Most electrical and electronic systems and machine operating conditions are complex and demanding.
If the connector needs to be in a harsh working environment, the designer should pay attention to the choice of connector and check the manufacturer's IP rating to provide the appropriate sealing performance over a range of angles, depths, and operating times. You should also consider the end-use environment of the connector and compare the scenario to the specifics of the connector's IP rating. Most IP logos have specific conditions, but each manufacturer may have different definitions for the IP 68 grade, so when looking for connectors with IP 68 seal ratings, the design engineer should ensure that the manufacturer is accurately asked. How the IP 68 rating is measured. For example, a system that is submerged at 2 meters for 24 hours has a different effect on the connector than a 24 hour at 120 meters, but both cases can be defined as IP 68.
Choose the right connector
When selecting connectors for high speed performance and PCB end, the connectors must be evaluated based on their actual use. The data performance of the connector meets the requirements, but it may be far from the performance achieved in real-world applications.
The choice of laminates is an increasingly important factor in cable and connector design. While FR-4 is not the best laminate choice for high speed/high bandwidth designs, it is still the first choice for many product developers due to its low cost and wide availability.
All connectors need to meet the wiring requirements. For example, if 16 layers of wiring are required, the design engineer must ensure that the connectors used will design many systems by themselves. That's why it's important to have a thorough understanding of the PCB to which the connector is connected, taking into account factors such as design optimization, manufacturability, and end product realization.
Connectors should be the focus of today's network-centric and data-intensive engineers. Without an appropriate connection, our Internet world will soon stop. Connectors are an integral part of connected devices and play a key role in providing safe and reliable electronic design for every aspect of our lives.
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